current_event:2020:covid-19

The 2019/20 coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19), also known as 2019-nCov, is an ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease. It was first identified in Wuhan China, after 41 people presented with pneumonia with no clear cause. The disease is capable of spreading between people with time from exposure to onset of symptoms generally from two to fourteen days. Infection can result in fever, coughing, shortness of breath, muscle pain, and fatigue. Complications may include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress. There are currently no vaccines or specific antiviral treatment for the disease, with efforts typically involving management of symptoms and supportive measures.

Death Rate represents the probability of dying if infected by the virus (number of deaths / number of cases). It is NOT the share of deaths by age group.

Senior citizens:

  • 80+ years old – 14.8% death rate
  • 70-79 years old – 8.0% death rate
  • 60-69 years old – 3.6% death rate
  • 50-59 years old – 1.3% death rate

People suffering from a pre-existing medical condition:

  • Cardiovascular disease – 10.5% death rate
  • Diabetes – 7.3% death rate
  • Chronic respiratory disease – 6.3% death rate
  • Hypertension – 6.0% death rate
  • Cancer – 5.6% death rate
  • no pre-existing conditions – 0.9% death rate

Source: Coronavirus Age, Sex, Demographics (COVID-19) - Worldometer

COVID-19 Self Triage

  1. Fever, cough, and difficulty breathing. Some patients have also reported a sore throat.
  2. COVID-19 has potential to cause severe disease and death.
  3. Risk factors for severe illness are still being determined, but older patients and those with chronic medical conditions may be at higher risk.
  4. CDC believes at this time that symptoms of COVID-19 may appear in as few as 2 days or as long as 14 after exposure. The incubation period is estimated at 2 to 10 days by the World Health Organization. There have been indications 1) that the virus can incubate for up to 27 days in some cases, however.
  1. Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
  2. Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
  3. Stay home when you are sick.
  4. Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in the trash.
  5. Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces using a household cleaning spray or wipe.
  6. Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after going to the bathroom, before eating, and after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing.
    1. If soap and water are not readily available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol. You must wash hands with soap and water if hands are visibly dirty.
    2. Maintain at least 3 feet (1 meter) distance between yourself and other people, particularly those who are coughing, sneezing and/or have a fever.
    3. CDC does not recommend that people who are well wear a facemask to protect themselves from respiratory viruses, including COVID-19.
    4. A facemask should be used by people who show symptoms of COVID-19, in order to protect others from the risk of getting infected.
  1. Stay home except to get medical care: Do not go to work, school, or public areas. Avoid public transportation, ride-sharing or taxis.
  2. Separate yourself from other people in your home: Stay in a specific room away from others and use separate bathroom.
  3. Call your doctor ahead of any visit: This will help your doctor's office take steps to keep other people from getting infected or exposed.
  4. Wear a facemask: Wear a facemask if you will be around other people or in a doctor's office.
  5. Cover your coughs and sneezes: Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw used tissues in a lined trash can.
  6. Clean your hands: Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not available, clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol, covering all surfaces of your hands and rubbing them together until they feel dry.
    1. Soap and water should be used if hands are visibly dirty.
    2. Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
  7. Avoid sharing personal household items: You should not share dishes, drinking cups, utensils, towels, or bedding with other people in your home. After using these items, they should be laundered with soap and water.
  8. Monitor your symptoms: Seek prompt medical attention if your illness is worsening (e.g., shortness of breath or difficulty breathing).
  1. Wear gloves
    1. Wash hands, as described above, then put on clean gloves upon entry into the patient room or care area. Change gloves if they become torn or contaminated.
    2. Remove and discard gloves when leaving the patient room or care area, and immediately wash hands.
  2. Wear gowns
    1. Put on a clean isolation gown upon entry into the patient room or care area. Change the gown if it becomes soiled. Remove and discard the gown in a dedicated container for waste or linen before leaving the patient room or care area. Disposable gowns should be discarded after use. Cloth gowns should be washed after each use.
  3. Use a respirator mask
    1. Use a respirator that is at least as protective as a fit-tested NIOSH-certified disposable N95 respirator before entry into the patient room or care area.
    2. Disposable respirators should be removed and discarded after exiting the patient’s room or care area and closing the door. Wash hands after discarding the respirator.
    3. Replace the mask with a new one as soon as it is damp and do not re-use single-use masks.
    4. If reusable respirators are used, they must be cleaned and disinfected according to manufacturer’s instructions prior to re-use.
    5. Avoid touching the mask while using it; if you do, clean your hands with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.
    6. To remove the mask: remove it from behind and do not touch the front of mask; discard immediately in a closed trash receptacle; clean hands with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.
  4. Use eye protection
    1. Put on eye protection (e.g., goggles, a disposable face shield that covers the front and sides of the face) upon entry to the patient room or care area. Remove eye protection before leaving the patient room or care area. Reusable eye protection (e.g., goggles) must be cleaned and disinfected according to manufacturer’s instructions prior to re-use. Disposable eye protection should be discarded after use.
  1. Place the headband or ties over your head and at the base of your neck.
  2. Positive pressure user seal check: The respirator user exhales gently while blocking the paths for air to exit the mask. A successful check is when the mask is slightly pressurized before increased pressure causes outward leakage.
  3. Negative pressure user seal check: The respirator user inhales sharply while blocking the paths for air to enter the mas. A successful check is when the mask collapses slightly under the negative pressure that is created with this procedure.
  1. Stock up on enough non-perishable food to last your household through ~4 weeks of any intense wave of transmission in your community.
  2. Obtain several additional months of prescription medications (if legally possible).
  3. Think through how you will take care of any sick family members or roommates.
  4. Cross-train staff at work in the event that staff call out sick for extended periods of time.
  5. Practice healthy routines, such as touching your face less, using your knuckle to push an elevator button instead of a finger, or using a napkin to open a bathroom door.
  6. Replace handshakes with another form of greeting, such as an elbow or fist bump.

Reference: https://virologydownunder.com/past-time-to-tell-the-public-it-will-probably-go-pandemic-and-we-should-all-prepare-now/


  • current_event/2020/covid-19.txt
  • Last modified: 2020/03/20 14:53
  • by leeroy